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Based on the principle that oil and water don't mix, lithography is a planographic, or flat-surface process executed on a smoothly grained slab of limestone, zinc, or aluminum plate. The naturally grease-receptive surface is drawn on with grease crayons or liquid grease solutions. After treatment with a chemical desensitizing solution of gum arabic and nitric or phosphoric acid, the plate or stone is dampened with a sponge and a very still ink is rolled on the surface. The ink adheres only to the grease particles in drawn areas and is rejected elsewhere. If the chemical processing has been done correctly, the print will duplicate exactly the tonalities and textures drawn on the stone or plate. Many techniques can be accommodated by this process, including crayon techniques, washes, pen and ink effects, and textural transfers as well as “flat” areas of color and tints.